萨丁尼亚语

----更新时间:2022-07-06

萨丁尼亚语(英语Sardinian、Sardu或Saldu)萨丁尼亚语(Sardu)分布于意大利的萨丁尼亚岛上,属于印欧语系罗曼语族。萨丁尼亚语之下的诸“方言”差异程度颇大,因此“萨丁尼亚语”一词指的是一种语言还是几个独立语言的统称还无定论。SIL在萨丁尼亚语之下列了四个独立的语言:Campidanese、Gallurese、Logudorese、及Sassarese。也有一些人认为Gallurese与Sassarese不属于萨丁尼亚语而是属于科西嘉语的方言。

介绍

罗马人于238年开始统治萨丁尼亚(见“科西嘉与萨丁尼亚省”),也将语言带入了萨丁尼亚,但是语言无法完全掩盖古萨丁尼亚语(Palaeo-Sardinan language)的痕迹。许多不明的字根仍然流传至今,而且通常是当地的语言接受了这些字根:“nur”出现在许多地名里,例如“Nuraghe”与“Nuoro”。

萨丁尼亚语很早就分离出来,因此与其它的罗曼语族的语言差异颇大,也保留了许多古老的特征。在e,i之前出现的c有时也没有软化,例如“一百(centum) (/'kentum/)”在萨丁尼亚语是“kentu”,在意大利语是“cento”、法语“cent(/sɑ̃/)”、西班牙语“cien”、葡萄牙语“cem”、罗马尼亚语“sută”。

萨丁尼亚语使用总人口约二百万人。萨丁尼亚语在1997年10月15日被承认为萨丁尼亚自治区的地方性官方语言,并且受到法律保护。维基百科也有萨丁尼亚语版本。

语法

(1)名词复数:

在萨丁尼亚语中,名词分为阳性名词和阴性名词

<1>以元音a结尾的名词加s,

例如:

Custaestfiza mia(This is my daughter),

Custassuntfizas mias(These are my daughters).

<2>以元音u结尾的阳性名词,把u变为os

例如:

Custuestfizu meu(This is my son)

Custossuntfizos mios( These are my sons).

<3>以元音e结尾的阳性名词或者阴性名词,结尾加s

例如:

Sufroreest pro te (The flower is for you).

Sosfroressunt pro te(The flowers are for you).

<4>以元音i结尾的名词加s

例如:

sucarreteri(the coachdriver),

soscarreteris(the coachdrivers).

(2)前置词:

a, cun o chin, da, de, in, pro, tra (to, with, from, from/of, in, for, between/among)

[1]a (to)

例如:

ababbu nadu bi l'as? (did you tell ittodaddy?) (todaddy tell it him you have?)

acue amus de torrare totu (all of us havetoreturn there) (tothere we-have to return all of us)

nadu bos l'aia chiaisse non lu deviazis mancu chircare (I had told you that you should not even look for him) (told you I had thattohim not him you -should even search)

[2]cun (with)

例如:

anda-bi cun Miali (go there with Michael)

bae cun fizu meu (go with my son)

est torradu cun muzere tua (he-has come back with your wife)

si nd'est andadu cun totu sa robba sua(he-has left with all his belongings)

[3]da (from/of)

例如:

dae te non mi l'isetaia unu comportamentu gai

(I did not expect a similar behaviour from jou) (from you not for me Iexpected a behaviour similar)

dae cue m'est bennidu su colpu (the blow hit me from that direction) ( from there to me has come the blow)

dae ite nde so bessidu l'isco solu eo (only I know what I have lived through) (from what (of) I have come out that know only I)

[4]de (from/of)

例如:

de Pedru non bi at de si nde fidare meda (you cannot trust a lot in peter) (of Peter not you have to trust a lot)

de inue sunt sos bighinos tuos? (where are yourneighboursfrom?) (from where are the neighbours your?)

de abboghinare a giuanne non ti nde ses galu istracadu ? (have you not gotten tired of calling John yet ?) (of calling to John not you of that you are tired yet?)

[5]in (in)

例如:

in custa carrera cras faghent festa (in this street there is a party tomorrow) (in this street tomorrow they make party)

[6]pro (for/to)

例如:

custos durches sunt fatos pro esser mandigados (these cookies are meant to be eaten) (these cookies are made to be eaten)

e pro cussu nois non nde andamus (therefore we do not go) (and for that we do not go)

[7]tra (between)

例如:

non si podet fagher unu paragone tra frade tuo e frade meu (you cannot compare your brother to mine) (not you can make a comparasion between brother your and brother my)

chi b'apat carchi cosa tra issos duos ( that there should be something between the two of them)

(3)关于前置词a,cun,de,in的详述:

[1]a (from/to)

a su, a sa, a sos, a sas (from/to the)

例如:

a su cumpanzu (to the friend)

a sa mama (to the mother)

a sos amigos (to the friends)

a sas sorres (to the sisters).

[2]cun (with)

cun sa, cun su, cun sos, cun sas (with the)

例如:

cun su giometra, (with the geometry)

cun sa mastra, (with the teacher (woman))

cun sos iscolanos, (with the pupils)

cun sas bidellas (with the school clerks)

[3]de (from/of)

de su, de sa, de sos, de sas. (from/of the...)

例如:

cussa machina est de su frade de Mario (this car is of the brother of Mario) (= this car belongs to Mario's brother)

eo so subra de su letu corcadu (I am lying on top of the bed) (I am on top of the bed stretched out)

sa litera chi l'est arrivida est de sa sorre (the letter that has arrived to him is from his sister) (the letter that him has come to is from the sister)

sa litera est subra de sa televisione (the letter is on top of the TV)

cussos trastis sunt de sos bighinos (those utensils belong to the neighbours)

nara-li de sos pitzinnos (tell him about the children) (tell him of the children)

cussas bustas de s'arga chi ant frundidu cue, sunt de sas istranzas (the sacks of garbage they have thrown there are from the tourists)

su tema de sos iscolanos no fit bene fatu (the pupils did not develop the subject properly) (the subject of the pupils was not well made)

[4]in (in)

in su, in sa, in sos, in sas (in the...)

例如:

in su puddarzu b'at duos puddos (in the henhouse there are two roosters)

in sa tasca bi est su casu (in the saddlebag is the cheese)

in sos montes de su Gennargentu bi frocat (in the mountains of Gennargentu it snows)

in sas coberturas betzas b'at nidos de rundines (inside the old roofs there are swallows' nests) (in the

roofs old there are nests of swallows)

日常用语